Normally when a hard drive is bad, you do not get a black screen. You will see it boot part way. Usually the manufacturer’s logo will display. That happens before the laptop even looks for the hard drive. During that time it is loading information it needs to find the hard drive. If the drive is bad, the you will get an error message telling you that it can not find a bootable device.
Sometimes with laptops, they will get stuck in a “sleep” mode. It turns on but then never completes the install. Often if you can unplug the laptop, remove the battery, and let it set for 20 minutes, it will run out of power and fully shut down. Plug it back in and it will no longer be in “sleep” mode and will boot for you.If it gives you the manufacturer’s logos and then the Windows logo but goes not further, then your hard drive is most likely still good and it is the files that load Windows that are failing. You would need to have the Windows repaired or reinstalled on the computer.If you do replace the hard drive, you will need to install Windows on it. they do not come with Windows preinstalled. You will need to download the Windows Media Creator from the Microsoft site, run on it another computer, and it will give you an option to create a bootable USB stick that you can then move to your computer, boot it up, and run the install from the USB stick. (You can also use this same process as one way of repairing a bad Windows install.)If the hard drive itself actually is bad, no one can predict if you can recover the files from it. Depending on what is damaged on the drive, you may be able to use a special cable to attach it to a USB port, see the files on the drive, and copy off what you want. Of you may not. No want to predict without seeing the drive and test it.But replacing the hard drive is NOT the first thing to do if the computer does not boot.
Source(s): 25+ years in IT. Do this for a living.